"If you treated it like a sacrifice, you could only do it for a short period of time.  It has to become a life, it has to become a passion."  
-Sir Steve Redgrave
-five time olympic gold medalist in five consecutive games over 20 years
- on the success of Michael Phelps
Welcome To Theory of Knowledge! Go Trojans!
Mr. Meixner

For the following reasons, assignments cannot and will not be posted.  Daily participation is necessary, along with an Extended Essay, TOK Presentation, and TOK Essay to be completed the senior year.
How do you know what you know?  
Perception Reason Language Emotion 
Because the Ways of Knowing are processes or activities so natural to students, their problematic aspects, worthy of reflection, do not come readily to conscioous or critcal attention.  The senses, through perception, seeming provide a window on the world as it really is, and the emotions have seldom been viewed as an integral aspect of human awareness and intelligence.  Additionally, the acquisition of a first language occurs so easily for most people, and communication is so effortless for some, that the influence of language in shaping thought is seldom noticed.  Finally, the appeal of a well-constructied argument can be sensed even without any formal training in logic or other forms of reasoning.  More skills are needed.

Mission Statement: 100% of Theory of Knowledge students will meet or exceed International Baccalaureate standards and graduation standards.  The aims of the TOK programme are to engage students in reflection on, and in the questioning of, the bases of knowledge so that they:
Develop an understanding of why critically examining knowledge claims is important
Develop a critical capacity to evaluate beliefs and knowledge claims.
Make interdisciplinary connections through Mathematics, Natural and Human Sciences, History, The Arts, and Ethics.
Make connections between and across Ways of knowing and Areas of Knowledge.
Demonstrate an understanding of knowledge at work in the world.
Identify values underlying judgments and knowledge claims pertinent to local and global issues.
Demonstrate an understanding that personal views, judgments, and beliefs may influence their own knowledge claims and those of others.
Use oral and written language to formulate and ommunicate ideas clearly.
We will explore the relationship of good communication, written and oral, in the real world regarding the areas of knowledge. Attendance is critical in this course in order to be prepared for the workplace.
School Supply List Mandatory Needs · Spiral notebook (one subject) · Notebook (at least 1 inch or a large notebook for all classes) · Notebook paper · Pens (blue or black) · Pencils · Highlighters Possible Needs · Colored pencils/markers · Kleenex and hand sanitizer 
Anything that will help with EE, TOK Essay, and TOK Presentation such as flash drive, working printer, ink, paper, lack of procrastination, etc.
*Outside links that can be accessed from this Website(hebisd.edu) are not maintained by HEB Independent School District. HEB Independent School District and Mr. Meixner are not responsible for the content of any outside links.

The aim of all IB programmes is to develop internationally minded people who, recognizing their common humanity and shared guardianship of the planet, help to create a better and more peaceful world.
IB learners strive to be:
Inquirers They develop their natural curiosity. They acquire the skills necessary to conduct
inquiry and research and show independence in learning. They actively enjoy learning and this love of learning will be sustained throughout their lives.
Knowledgeable They explore concepts, ideas and issues that have local and global significance. In so doing, they acquire in-depth knowledge and develop understanding
across a broad and balanced range of disciplines.
Thinkers They exercise initiative in applying thinking skills critically and creatively to recognize and approach complex problems, and make reasoned, ethical decisions.
Communicators They understand and express ideas and information confidently and creatively in more than one language and in a variety of modes of communication. They
work effectively and willingly in collaboration with others.
Principled They act with integrity and honesty, with a strong sense of fairness, justice and
respect for the dignity of the individual, groups and communities. They take responsibility for their own actions and the consequences that accompany them.
Open-minded They understand and appreciate their own cultures and personal histories, and are open to the perspectives, values and traditions of other individuals and communities. They are accustomed to seeking and evaluating a range of points of view, and are willing to grow from the experience.
Caring They show empathy, compassion and respect towards the needs and feelings of
others. They have a personal commitment to service, and act to make a positive difference to the lives of others and to the environment.
Risk-takers They approach unfamiliar situations and uncertainty with courage and forethought, and have the independence of spirit to explore new roles, ideas and strategies. They are brave and articulate in defending their beliefs.
Balanced They understand the importance of intellectual, physical and emotional balance
to achieve personal well-being for themselves and others.
Reflective They give thoughtful consideration to their own learning and experience. They
are able to assess and understand their strengths and limitations in order to support their learning and personal development.

Academic honesty

1.1 Academic honesty must be seen as a set of values and skills that promote personal integrity and

good practice in teaching, learning and assessment. It is influenced and shaped by a variety of factors

including peer pressure, culture, parental expectations, role modelling and taught skills. Although it is

probably easier to explain to candidates what constitutes academic dishonesty, with direct reference

to plagiarism, collusion and cheating in examinations, whenever possible the topic must be treated in

a positive way, stressing the benefits of properly conducted academic research and a respect for the

integrity of all forms of assessment for the Diploma Programme.

1.2 All Diploma Programme candidates must understand the basic meaning and significance of concepts

that relate to academic honesty, especially intellectual property and authenticity. However, a

conceptual understanding alone is not sufficient; candidates must have the knowledge and practical

skills to apply such concepts to their work.

1.3 The concept of intellectual property is potentially a difficult one for candidates to understand because

there are many different forms of intellectual property rights, such as patents, registered designs,

trademarks, moral rights and copyright. Candidates must at least be aware that forms of intellectual

and creative expression (for example, works of literature, art or music) must be respected and are

normally protected by law. By implementing measures to prevent plagiarism schools are helping to

combat illegal out-of-school activities (for example, illegal music downloads, peer-to-peer/P2P file

sharing) for which candidates may face legal proceedings.

1.4 In both conceptual and practical terms, candidates may not understand the difference between

collaboration and collusion, and therefore require guidance. Collaboration may be loosely defined

as working together on a common aim with shared information, which is an open and cooperative

behaviour that does not result in “allowing one’s work to be copied or submitted for assessment by

another” as defined in the Regulations. For further details, see section 2.5.

1.5 An authentic piece of work is one that is based on the candidate’s individual and original ideas with the

ideas and work of others fully acknowledged. Therefore, all assignments for assessment, regardless of

their format, must wholly and authentically use that candidate’s own language, expression and ideas.

Where the ideas or work of another person are represented within a candidate’s work, whether in

the form of direct quotation or paraphrase, the source(s) of those ideas or the work must be fully and

appropriately acknowledged.

1.6 Although the principles of academic honesty apply equally to all subjects, there are issues that are

particularly relevant to the arts, where imitation, influence and inspiration have a respectable tradition.

The observation of form and its resemblance to nature, or to another artist’s work, is a skill to be

nurtured. There is an expectation that candidates may be influenced by the work of other artists and

writers, whose works may inspire the candidates’ own creativity.1 Thus there are circumstances where

the creative use of the work or ideas of another person is acceptable, but the original source must

always be acknowledged. The imitation of another artist’s work may be acceptable in contexts that

are well defined by the teacher, but candidates must understand that passing off the work of another

person as their own is not acceptable and constitutes malpractice.

1 The ideas conveyed in this section are based on a paper written by Nicholas Connolly (Theatre and Academic Honesty, 2008)

available on the IB online curriculum centre (OCC).

2 Academic honesty

 Understanding academic honesty and malpractice

1.7 Although the Regulations clearly define plagiarism as the representation of the ideas or work of

another person as the candidate’s own, this definition alone does not provide candidates with

sufficient information or guidance on what constitutes plagiarism and how it can be avoided.

Candidates must receive guidance on when and how to include acknowledgments in their work.

Similarly, the practice of paraphrasing is a skill that must be taught so that candidates do not simply

copy a passage, substitute a few words with their own and then regard this as their own authentic

work. When using the words of another person it must become habitual practice for a candidate to

use quotation marks, indentation or some other accepted means of indicating that the wording is not

their own. Furthermore, the source of the quotation (or paraphrased text) must be clearly identified

along with the quotation and not reside in the bibliography alone. Using the words and ideas of

another person to support one’s arguments is a fundamental part of any academic endeavour, and

how to integrate these words and ideas with one’s own is an important skill that must be taught.


2.1 The Regulations define malpractice as behaviour that results in, or may result in, the candidate or any

other candidate gaining an unfair advantage in one or more assessment component. Malpractice


plagiarism: this is defined as the representation of the ideas or work of • another person as the

candidate’s own

• collusion: this is defined as supporting malpractice by another candidate, as in allowing one’s

work to be copied or submitted for assessment by another

• duplication of work: this is defined as the presentation of the same work for different assessment

components and/or diploma requirements

• any other behaviour that gains an unfair advantage for a candidate or that affects the results

of another candidate (for example, taking unauthorized material into an examination room,

misconduct during an examination, falsifying a CAS record).

2.2 Some candidates seem to believe that because the internet is in the public domain and largely

uncontrolled, information can be taken from websites without the need for acknowledgment. On the

contrary, candidates must record the addresses of all websites from which they obtain information

during their research, including the date when each website was accessed. The uniform (or universal)

resource locator (URL) constitutes the website address for this purpose. Simply stating the search

engine that was used to find the website is not acceptable and does not, in the view of the final award

committee, constitute a form of acknowledgment. The requirement to cite the source of material

includes the copying of maps, photographs, illustrations, data, graphs and so on. For example, to

cut and paste a graph from a website without acknowledging its source constitutes plagiarism. CDRoms,

DVDs, email messages and any other electronic media must be treated in the same way as the

internet, books and journals.

2.3 The issue of plagiarism is not confined to subjects in groups 1 to 5 of the Diploma Programme. Copying

works of art, whether music, film, dance, theatre arts or visual arts, without proper acknowledgment,

may also constitute plagiarism. There are circumstances where the creative use of the work of

another artist is acceptable, but the original source must always be acknowledged. Candidates must

understand that passing off the work of another person as their own is not acceptable and constitutes

malpractice, regardless of whether the act was intentional.

2.4 Copying text, or other material, is not always a deliberate attempt by a candidate to present the ideas

or work of another person as their own. In fact, in the experience of the final award committee it is

apparent that many candidates are not aware of when or how to acknowledge sources. It is essential

that candidates are taught this important academic skill. For example, a candidate may copy one or

two sentences from a book, journal or website without showing it is a quotation, but indicating its

source in a footnote or the bibliography. Although each case requires a separate judgment, in general

such cases are the result of negligence or a lack of awareness on the part of the candidate and do not

warrant an allegation of malpractice. These cases may attract the penalty applied to an academic

infringement, and not malpractice. For further details, see sections 11.4 and 11.5.

2.5 For most assessment components candidates are expected to work independently but with

support from their subject teacher (or supervisor in the case of extended essays). However, there are

occasions when collaboration with other candidates is permitted or even actively encouraged, for

example, in the requirements for internal assessment. Nevertheless, the final work must be produced

independently, despite the fact that it may be based on the same or similar data. This means that the

abstract, introduction, content and conclusion/summary of a piece of work must be written in each

candidate’s own words and cannot therefore be the same as another candidate’s. For example, if two

or more candidates have exactly the same introduction to an assignment, the final award committee

will interpret this as collusion (or plagiarism), and not collaboration. It is essential that both teachers

and candidates are aware of the distinction between collaboration and collusion. Teachers must

pay particular attention to this important distinction to prevent allegations of collusion against their

candidates. Whether or not candidates are allowed to work together on the requirements for internal

assessment varies between groups and subjects.

Group 3: in geography, for example, candidates might be presented with • a research question

(hypothesis) by the teacher and then have to work as part of a group to collect data together in

the field; but each candidate must write up their report of the fieldwork individually. The reports

will have a similar hypothesis and may have the same data in the appendices, but the way the

data collection is described, analysed and evaluated must be different from the work of other

candidates with whom they collected the data, and must be entirely their own work.

• Group 4: in group 4 subjects, including design technology, no collaboration is allowed in

assessment tasks except in the area of data collection. Although there are different requirements

depending on the subject, candidates ideally should work on their own when collecting data.

When data collection is carried out in groups, the actual recording and processing of data must

be undertaken independently if this criterion is to be assessed. For more subject-specific details,

refer to the appropriate subject guide. (This does not apply to the group 4 project, which by its

very nature is a collaborative project and is assessed for personal skills only.)

• Group 5: candidates must be aware that the written work they submit must be entirely their own.

When completing a piece of work outside the classroom, candidates must work independently.

Although group work can be educationally desirable in some situations, it is not appropriate

for the mathematics HL or mathematics SL portfolio. For mathematical studies SL, group work

must not be used for projects. Each project must be based on different data collected or

measurements generated.

2.6 The presentation of the same work for different assessment components and/or diploma requirements

is a duplication of work and therefore constitutes malpractice. For example, if a candidate submits

the same or a very similar piece of work for history internal assessment and for an extended essay

in history, this would be viewed as malpractice. However, it is perfectly acceptable for a candidate

to study one aspect of a topic for internal assessment and another aspect of the same topic for an

extended essay.

2.7 Fabrication of data is a further example of malpractice. If a candidate manufactures data for a table,

survey or other such requirement, this will be interpreted as an attempt to gain an unfair advantage in

an assessment component. Consequently, the final award committee will find the candidate guilty of

malpractice. Using authentic data is a matter of academic honesty.

2.8 Malpractice most commonly involves plagiarism or collusion. However, there are other ways in

which a candidate may commit malpractice and in so doing be in breach of the Regulations. The

following examples of malpractice do not constitute an exhaustive list and refer only to the written


taking unauthorized material in • to an examination room

• leaving and/or accessing unauthorized material in a bathroom/restroom that may be visited

during an examination

• misconduct during an examination, including any attempt to disrupt the examination or distract

another candidate

• exchanging information or in any way supporting the passing on of information to another

candidate about the content of an examination

• failing to comply with the instructions of the invigilator or other member of the school’s staff

responsible for the conduct of the examination

• impersonating another candidate

• stealing examination papers

• using an unauthorized calculator during an examination

• disclosing or discussing the content of an examination paper with a person outside the

immediate school community within 24 hours after the examination.

2.9 Taking unauthorized material (for example, own rough paper, notes, a mobile/cell phone or an electronic

device other than a permitted calculator) into an examination is the most common type of malpractice

after plagiarism and collusion. At the start of an examination candidates must be given the opportunity

to declare any unauthorized material in their possession. However, even if this opportunity is not given

by the invigilator, a candidate will still be found guilty of malpractice by the final award committee

if unauthorized material is in their possession. “In their possession” may be taken to mean on the

person of the candidate, in the candidate’s immediate proximity (such as on the floor or desk) or placed

somewhere (such as a bathroom/restroom) for access during the examination. It is very important to

note that guilt will be confirmed by the committee regardless of whether this material is used, was or

was not intended for use or contains information relevant or potentially relevant to the examination.

The actual possession of unauthorized material constitutes malpractice; the final award committee is

not required to establish whether the candidate used or intended to use the material. No leniency is

shown to a candidate who claims that they were unaware the material was in their possession.

2.10 Cases of possible malpractice during an examination are normally identified by the coordinator/